شبكة و منتديات القدومي
عزيزي / عزيزتي .. ان لم تكن مسجل لدينا فأنت في منتداك
فلتتجول في المنتدى كما تحب لكن اجعلنا سعداء بتواجدك معنا
في صندوق الدردشة الخاص بمنتدانا المتواضع فلتتفضل و سجل
^_^
الادارة :- مـــــؤيــد الـقـدومـــــــي


لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةس .و .جبحـثالأعضاءالتسجيلدخولتحميل صور و ملفات

شبكة و منتديات القدومي ترحب بكم اينما كنتم : الادمن مؤيد القدومي


شاطر | 
 

 Salahuddin Ayyubi

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
ام الياس
عضو محترف
عضو محترف
avatar

عدد الرسائل : 756
العمر : 33
نقاط : 3824
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/09/2008

بطاقة الشخصية
اغراضي:

مُساهمةموضوع: Salahuddin Ayyubi   الجمعة فبراير 06, 2009 11:22 pm

Salahuddin Ayyubi






Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi, the hero of hundreds of battles, was the
person who for twenty years braved the storm of the Crusaders and ultimately
pushed back the combined forces of Europe which had come to swarm the Holy
Land. The world has hardly witnessed a more chivalrous and humane
conqueror.
The Crusades represent the maddest
and the longest war in the history of mankind, in which the storm of savage
fanaticism of the Christian West burst in all its fury over western Asia. `The
Crusades form', says a Western writer, `one of the maddest episodes in history.
Christianity hurled itself against Muhammadanism in expedition after expedition
for nearly three centuries, until failure brought lassitude, and superstition
itself was undermined by its own labour. Europe was drained off men and money,
and threatened with social bankruptcy, if not with annihilation. Millions
perished in battle, hunger or disease and every atrocity imagination can
conceive disgraced the warrior of the Cross'. The Christian West was excited to
a mad religious frenzy by Peter the Hermit, and his followers to liberate the
Holy Land from the hands of the Muslims. `Every means', says Hallam, `was used
to excite an epidemical frenzy'. During the time that a Crusader bore the
Cross, he was under the protection of the Church and exempted from all taxes as
well as free to commit all sins.
Peter the Hermit himself led the
second host of the Crusaders comprising forty thousand people. `Arriving at
Mallevile, they avenged their precursors by assaulting the town, slaying seven
thousand of the inhabitants, and abandoning themselves to every species of
grossness and liberalism'. The savage hordes called Crusaders converted Hungary
and Bulgaria into desolate regions. When they reached Asia Minor, they,
according to Michaud, `committed crimes which made nature shudder'.

The third wave of the Crusaders
commanded by a German monk, according to Gibbon, `were comprised of the most
stupid and savage refuse of people. They mingled with their devotion a brutal
licence of rapine, prostitution and drunkenness'. `They forgot Constantinople
and Jerusalem', says Michaud `in tumultuous scenes of debauchery, and pillage,
violation and murder was everywhere left on the traces of their
passage'.
The fourth horde of the Crusaders
which had risen from western Europe was, according to Mill, `another herd of
wild and desperate savages... The internal multitude hurried on the south in
their usual career of carnage and rapine'. But, at last, they were annihilated
by the infuriated Hungarian Army which had a foretaste of the madness of the
earlier Crusaders.
Later the Crusaders met with initial
success and conquered a major part of Syria and Palestine, including the Holy
city of Jerusalem. But their victories were followed by such brutalities and
massacres of innocent Muslims which eclipsed the massacres of Changiz and
Hulaku. Mill, a Christian historian, testifies to this massacre of the Muslim
population on the fall of the Muslim town of Autioch. He writes: `The dignity
of age, the helplessness of youth and the beauty of the weaker sex were
disregarded by the Latin savages. Houses were no sanctuaries, and the sign of a
mosque added new virulence to cruelty'. According to Michaud: `if contemporary
account can be credited, all the vices of the infamous Babylon prevailed among
the liberators of Scion'. The Crusaders laid waste to flourishing towns of
Syria, butchered their population in cold blood and burnt to ashes the
invaluable treasures of art and learning including the world famous library of
Tripolis (Syria) containing more than three million volumes. `The streets ran
with blood until ferocity was tired out', says Mill. `Those who were vigorous
or beautiful were reserved for the slave market at Antioch, but the aged and
the infirm were immolated at the altar of cruelty'.
But in the second half of the 12th
century, when the Crusaders were in their greatest fury and the emperors of
Germany and France and Richard, the lion-hearted king of England, had taken the
field in person for the conquest of the Holy Land, the Crusaders were met by
Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi, a great warrior who pushed back the surging wave of
Christianity out to engulf the Holy Land. He was not able to clear the
gathering storm but in him the Crusaders met a man of indomitable will and
dauntless courage who could accept the challenge of the Christian
West.
Salahuddin was born in 1137. He got
his early training under his illustrious father Najmuddin Ayub and his
chivalrous uncle Asaduddin Sherkoh, who were the trusted lieutenants of
Nooruddin Mahmud, the monarch of Syria. Asaduddin Sherkoh, a great warrior
general was the commander of the Syrian force, which had defeated the Crusaders
both in Syria and Egypt. Sherkoh entered Egypt in 1167 to meet the challenge of
the Fatamide Minister Shawer who had allied himself with the French. The
marches and counter-marches of the gallant Sherkoh and his ultimate victory at
Babain over the allied force, according to Michaud, `show military capacity of
the highest order'. Ibni Atheer writes about it: `Never has history recorded a
more extraordinary event than the rout of the Egyptian force and the French at
the littoral by only a thousand cavaliers'.
On January 8, 1169 Sherkoh arrived
in Cairo and was appointed as the Minister and Commander-in-Chief by the
Fatimid Caliph. But Sherokh was not destined to enjoy the fruits of his high
office long. He died two months later in 1169. On his death, his nephew
Salahuddin Ayubi became the Prime Minister of Egypt. He soon won the hearts of
the people by his liberality and justice and on the death of the Egyptian
Caliph became the virtual ruler of Egypt.
In Syria too, the celebrated
Nooruddin Mahmud died in 1174 and was succeeded by his eleven year old son,
Malik-us-Saleh who became a tool in the hands of his courtiers, specially
Gumushtagin. Salahuddin sent a message to Malik-us-Saleh offering his services
and devotion. He even continued to keep his name in the `Khutaba' (Friday
Sermons) and coinage. But all these considerations were of no avail for the
young ruler and his ambitious courtiers. This state of affairs once more
heartened the Crusaders who were kept down by the advice of Gumushtagin retired
to Alippo, leaving Damascus exposed to a Frankish attack. The Crusaders
instantly laid siege to the Capital city and released it only after being paid
heavy ransom. This enraged Salahuddin who hurried to Damascus with a small
force and took possession of it.
After occupying Damascus, he did not
enter the palace of his patron, Nooruddin Mahmud, but stayed in his father's
house. The Muslims, on the other hand, were much dismayed by the activities of
Malik-us-Saleh and invited him to rule over the area. But Salahuddin continued
to rule on behalf of the young Malik-us-Saleh. On the death of Malik-us-Saleh
in 1181-82, the authority of Salahuddin was acknowledged by all the sovereigns
of western Asia.
There was a truce between the Sultan
and the Franks in Palestine but, according to the French historian Michaud,
`the Mussalmans respected their pledged faith, whilst the Christians gave the
signal of a new war'. Contrary to the terms of the truce, the Christian ruler
Renaud or Reginald of Chatillon attacked a Muslim caravan passing by his
castle, massacred a large number of people and looted their property. The
Sultan was now free to act. By a skilful manoeuvre, Salahuddin entrapped the
powerful enemy forces near the hill of Hittin in 1187 and routed them with
heavy loses. The Sultan did allow the Christians to recover and rapidly
followed up his victory of Hittin. In a remarkably short time, he reoccupied a
large number of cities which were in possession of the Christians including
Nablus, Jericko, Ramlah, Caesarea, Arsuf, Jaffa and Beirut. Ascalon, too,
submitted after a short siege and was granted generous terms by the
kind-hearted Sultan.

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ام الياس
عضو محترف
عضو محترف
avatar

عدد الرسائل : 756
العمر : 33
نقاط : 3824
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/09/2008

بطاقة الشخصية
اغراضي:

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Salahuddin Ayyubi   الجمعة فبراير 06, 2009 11:25 pm

The Sultan now turned his
attention to Jerusalem which contained more than sixty thousand Crusaders. The
Christians, could not withstand the onslaught of the Sultan's forces and
capitulated in 1187. The humanity of the Sultan towards the defeated Christians
of Jerusalem procures an unpleasant contrast to the massacre of the Muslims in
Jerusalem when conquered by the Christians about ninety years
before.
According to the French historian
Michaud, on the conquest of Jerusalem by the Christians in 1099 `the Saracens
were massacred in the streets and in the houses. Jerusalem had no refuge for
the vanquished. Some fled from death by precipitating themselves from the
ramparts; others crowded for shelter into the palaces, the towers and above
all, in the mosques where they could not conceal themselves from the
Christians. The Crusaders, masters of the Mosque of Umar, where the Saracens
defended themselves for sometime, renewed their deplorable scenes which
disgraced the conquest of Titus. The infantry and the cavalry rushed pell-mell
among the fugitives. Amid the most horrid tumult, nothing was heard but the
groans and cries of death; the victors trod over heaps of corpses in pursuing
those who vainly attempted to escape. Raymond d'Agiles who was an eye-witness,
says :that under the portico of the mosque, the blood was knee-deep, and reached
the horses' bridles.'
There was a short lull in the act of
slaughter when the Crusaders assembled to offer their thanksgiving prayer for
the victory they had achieved. But soon it was renewed with great ferocity.
`All the captives', says Michaud, `whom the lassitude of carnage had at first
spared, all those who had been saved in the hope of rich ransom, were butchered
in cold blood. The Saracens were forced to throw themselves from the tops of
towers and houses; they were burnt alive; they were dragged from their
subterranean retreats, they were hauled to the public places, and immolated on
piles of the dead. Neither the tears of women nor the cries of little
children--- not even the sight of the place where Jesus Christ forgave his
executioners, could mollify the victors' passion... The carnage lasted for a
week. The few who escaped were reduced to horrible servitude'.
Another Christian historian, Mill
adds: `It was resolved that no pity should be shown to the Mussalmans. The subjugated
people were, therefore, dragged into the public places, and slain as victims.
Women with children at their breast, girls and boys, all were slaughtered. The
squares, the streets and even the un-inhabited places of Jerusalem, were strewn
with the dead bodies of men and women, and the mangled limbs of children. No
heart melted in compassion, or expanded into benevolence'.
These are the graphic accounts of
the massacre of the Muslims in Jerusalem about ninety years before the
reoccupation of the Holy city by Sultan Salahuddin in which more than seventy
thousand Muslims perished.
On the other hand, when the Sultan
captured Jerusalem in 1187, he gave free pardon to the Christians living in the
city. Only the combatants were asked to leave the city on payment of a nominal
ransom. In most of the cases, the Sultan provided the ransom money from his own
pocket and even provided them transport. A number of weeping Christian women
carrying their children in their arms approached the Sultan and said `You see
us on foot, the wives, mothers and dauthers of the warriors who are your
prisoners; we are quitting forever this country; they aided us in our lives, in
losing them we lose our last hope; if you give them to us, they can alleviate
our miseries and we shall not be without support on earth'. The Sultan was
highly moved with their appeal and set free their men. Those who left the city
were allowed to carry all their bag and baggage. The humane and benevolent
behaviour of the Sultan with the defeated Christians of Jerusalem provides a
striking contrast to the butchery of the Muslims in this city at the hands of
the Crusaders ninety years before. The commanders under the Sultan vied with
each other in showing mercy to the defeated Crusaders.
The Christian refugees of Jerusalem
were not given refuge by the cities ruled by the Christians. `Many of the
Christians who left Jerusalem', says Mill, `went to Antioch but Bohemond not
only denied them hospitality, but even stripped them. They marched into the
Saracenian country, and were well received'. Michaud gives a long account of
the Christian inhumanity to the Christian refugees of Jerusalem. Tripoli shut
its gates on them and, according to Michaud, `one woman, urged by despair, cast
her infant into the sea, cursing the Christians who refused them succour'. But
the Sultan was very considerate towards the defeated Christians. Respecting
their feelings, he did not enter the city of Jerusalem until the Crusaders had
left.
From Jerusalem, the Sultan marched
upon Tyre, where the ungrateful Crusaders pardoned by Sultan in Jerusalem had
organized to meet him. The Sultan captured a number of towns held by the
Crusaders on the sea coast, including Laodicea, Jabala, Saihun, Becas, Bozair
and Derbersak. The Sultan had set free Guy de Luginan on the promise that he
would instantly leave for Europe. But, as soon as this ungrateful Christian
Knight got freedom, he broke his pledged word and collecting a large army, laid
siege to Ptolemais.
The fall of Jerusalem into the hands
of the Muslims threw Christendom into violent commotion and reinforcements
began to pour in from all parts of Europe. The Emperors of Germany and France
as well as Richard, the Lion-hearted, king of England, hurried with large
armies to seize the Holy Land from the Muslims. They laid siege to Acre which
lasted for several months. In several open combats against the Sultan,, the
Crusaders were routed with terrible losses.
The Sultan had now to face the combined
might of Europe. Incessant reinforcements continued pouring in for the
Crusaders and despite their heavy slaughter in combats against the Sultan,
their number continued increasing. The besieged Muslims of Acre, who held on so
long against the flower of the European army and who had been crippled with
famine at last capitulated on the solemn promise that none would be killed and
that they would pay 2,00,000 pieces of gold to the chiefs of the Crusaders.
There was some delay in the payment of the ransom when the Lion-hearted king of
England butchered the helpless Muslims in cold blood within the sight of their
brethren.
This act of the king of England
infuriated the Sultan. He vowed to avenge the blood of the innocent Muslims.
Along the 150 miles of coastlines, in eleven Homeric battles, the Sultan
inflicted heavy losses on the Christian forces.
At the last the Lion-hearted king of
England sued for peace, which was accepted by the Sultan. He had found facing
him a man of indomitable will and boundless energy and had realized the
futility of continuing the struggle against such a person. In September 1192,
peace was concluded and the Crusaders left the Holy Land with bag and baggage,
bound for their homes in Europe.
`Thus ended the third Crusade',
writes Michaud, `in which the combined forces of the west could not gain more
than the capture of Acre and the destruction of Ascaion. In it, Germany lost
one of its greatest emperors and the flower of its army. More than six lakh Crusaders
landed in front of Acre and hardly one lakh returned to their homes. Europe has
more reasons to wail on the outcome of this Crusade as in it had participated
the best armies of Europe. The flower of Western chivalry which Europe was
proud of had fought in these wars'.
The Sultan devoted the rest of his
life to public welfare activities and built hospitals, schools, colleges and
mosques all over his dominion.
But he was not destined to live long
to enjoy the fruits of peace. A few months later, he died on March 4, 1193 at
Damascus. `The day of his death' says a Muslim writer, `was for Islam and the
Mussalmans, a misfortune such as they never suffered since they were deprived
of the first four Caliphs. The palace, the empire, and the world was
overwhelmed with grief, the whole city was plunged in sorrow, and followed his
bier weeping and crying'.
Thus died Sultan Salahuddin, one of
the most humane and chivalrous monarchs in the annals of mankind. In him,
nature had very harmoniously blended the benevolent and merciful heart of a
Muslim with a matchless military genius. The messenger who took the news of his
death to Baghdad brought the Sultan's coat of mail, his horse one dinar and 36
dirhams which was all the property he had left. His contemporaries and other
historians are unanimous in acknowledging Salahuddin as a tender-hearted, kind,
patient, affable person--- a friend of the learned and the virtuous whom he
treated with utmost respect and beneficence. `In Europe', says Phillip K.
Hitti, `he touched the fancy of the English minstrels as well as the modern
novelists and is still considered the paragon of chivalry'.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ام الياس
عضو محترف
عضو محترف
avatar

عدد الرسائل : 756
العمر : 33
نقاط : 3824
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/09/2008

بطاقة الشخصية
اغراضي:

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Salahuddin Ayyubi   الجمعة فبراير 06, 2009 11:27 pm







this is salah
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
زائر
زائر
avatar


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Salahuddin Ayyubi   الإثنين فبراير 16, 2009 5:07 am

waoow mash2'Allah f kteer klam o kman b engliish !!!!l

yeslamooo albiii 3la el majohod

youm saiiid

ps: mra tania arabi 3ashan efhmo nass mab7kii 3ashani akiiid^^!
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ام الياس
عضو محترف
عضو محترف
avatar

عدد الرسائل : 756
العمر : 33
نقاط : 3824
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/09/2008

بطاقة الشخصية
اغراضي:

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Salahuddin Ayyubi   الخميس فبراير 19, 2009 6:33 am

الله يسلم هالمروووووووووووووووووووووووووووور الرائع
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
Salahuddin Ayyubi
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
شبكة و منتديات القدومي :: _…ـ-*™£ القدومي للابحاث و اللغات £™*-ـ…_ :: _…ـ-*™£ القدومي للجغرافيا £™*-ـ…_-
انتقل الى: