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 MOHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI

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تاريخ التسجيل : 16/09/2008

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مُساهمةموضوع: MOHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI   الجمعة فبراير 06, 2009 11:30 pm

MOHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI







(864-930
A.D.)



Abu
Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (864-930 A.D.) was born at Ray, Iran.
Initially, he was interested in music but later on he learnt medicine,
mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy from a student of Hunayn Ibn
Ishaq, who was well versed in the ancient Greek, Persian and Indian systems of
medicine and other subjects. He also studied under Ali Ibn Rabban. The
practical experience gained at the well-known Muqtadari Hospital helped him in
his chosen profession of medicine. At an early age he gained eminence as an
expert in medicine and alchemy, so that patients and students flocked to him
from distant parts of Asia.



He
was first placed in-charge of the first Royal Hospital at Ray, from where he
soon moved to a similar position in Baghdad where he remained the head of its
famous Muqtadari Hospital for along time. He moved from time to time to various
cities, specially between Ray and Baghdad, but finally returned to Ray, where
he died around 930 A.D. His name is commemorated in the Razi Institute near
Tehran.



Razi
was a Hakim, an alchemist and a philosopher. In medicine, his contribution was
so significant that it can only be compared to that of Ibn Sina. Some of his
works in medicine e.g. Kitab al- Mansoori, Al-Hawi, Kitab
al-Mulooki
and Kitab al-Judari wa al- Hasabah earned everlasting
fame. Kitab al-Mansoori, which was translated into Latin in the 15th
century A.D., comprised ten volumes and dealt exhaustively with Greco-Arab
medicine. Some of its volumes were published separately in Europe. His al-Judari
wal Hasabah
was the first treatise on smallpox and chicken-pox, and is
largely based on Razi's original contribution: It was translated into various
European languages. Through this treatise he became the first to draw clear
comparisons between smallpox and chicken-pox. Al-Hawi was the largest
medical encyclopaedia composed by then. It contained on each medical subject
all important information that was available from Greek and Arab sources, and
this was concluded by him by giving his own remarks based on his experience and
views. A special feature of his medical system was that he greatly favoured
cure through correct and regulated food. This was combined with his emphasis on
the influence of psychological factors on health. He also tried proposed
remedies first on animals in order to evaluate in their effects and side
effects. He was also an expert surgeon and was the first to use opium for
anaesthesia.



In
addition to being a physician, he compounded medicines and, in his later years,
gave himself over to experimental and theoretical sciences. It seems possible
that he developed his chemistry independently of Jabir
Ibn Hayyan
. He has portrayed in great detail several chemical
reactions and also given full descriptions of and designs for about twenty
instruments used in chemical investigations. His description of chemical
knowledge is in plain and plausible language. One of his books called Kitab-al-Asrar
deals with the preparation of chemical materials and their utilization. Another
one was translated into Latin under the name Liber Experi- mentorum, He
went beyond his predecessors in dividing substances into plants, animals and
minerals, thus in a way opening the way for inorganic and organic chemistry. By
and large, this classification of the three kingdoms still holds. As a chemist,
he was the first to produce sulfuric acid together with some other acids, and
he also prepared alcohol by fermenting sweet products.



His
contribution as a philosopher is also well known. The basic elements in his
philosophical system are the creator, spirit, matter, space and time. He
discusses their characteristics in detail and his concepts of space and time as
constituting a continuum are outstanding. His philosophica! views were,
however, criticised by a number of other Muslim scholars of the era.



He
was a prolific author, who has left monumental treatises on numerous subjects.
He has more than 200 outstanding scientific contributions to his credit, out of
which about half deal with medicine and 21 concern alchemy. He also wrote on
physics, mathe- matics, astronomy and optics, but these writings could not be
preserved. A number of his books, including Jami-fi-al-Tib, Mansoori,
al-Hawi, Kitab al-Jadari wa al-Hasabah, al-Malooki, Maqalah
fi al- Hasat fi Kuli wa al-Mathana
, Kitab al-Qalb, Kitab
al-Mafasil
, Kitab-al- 'Ilaj al-Ghoraba, Bar al-Sa'ah, and al-Taqseem
wa al-Takhsir
, have been published in various European languages. About 40
of his manuscripts are still extant in the museums and libraries of Iran,
Paris, Britain, Rampur, and Bankipur. His contribution has greatly influenced
the development of science, in general, and medicine, in particular.






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