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 Taaaaaaaaaaaaaj Mahal

اذهب الى الأسفل 
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عدد الرسائل : 756
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تاريخ التسجيل : 16/09/2008

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مُساهمةموضوع: Taaaaaaaaaaaaaj Mahal   الخميس فبراير 26, 2009 11:12 pm



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هذه الصور التي تتعلق بتاج محل
واليك عزيزي الطالب الموضوع باللغة الانجليزية

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Taaaaaaaaaaaaaj Mahal   الخميس فبراير 26, 2009 11:18 pm

The Taj Mahal

: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.


The Taj Mahal (also "the Taj") is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Ottoman, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site and was cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."


While the white domed marble
mausoleum is its most familiar component, the Taj Mahal is actually an
integrated complex of structures. Building began around 1632 and was
completed around 1653, and employed thousands of artisans and craftsmen. The Persian[2] architect, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer of the Taj Mahal.



In 1631, Shah Jahan, emperor during the Mughal empire's
period of greatest prosperity, was griefstricken when his third wife,
Mumtaz Mahal, died during the birth of their fourteenth child, Gauhara Begum. The court chronicles of Shah Jahan's grief illustrates the love story traditionally held as an inspiration for Taj Mahal.
The construction of Taj Mahal begun soon after Mumtaz's death with the
principal mausoleum completed in 1648. The surrounding buildings and garden were finished five years later. Emperor Shah Jahan himself described the Taj in these words:


Should guilty seek asylum here,

Like one pardoned, he becomes free from sin.


Should a sinner make his way to this mansion,


All his past sins are to be washed away.


The sight of this mansion creates sorrowing sighs;


And the sun and the moon shed tears from their eyes.


In this world this edifice has been made;


To display thereby the creator's glory.

The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful TimuridGur-e Amir (the tomb of Timur, progenitor of the Mughal dynasty, in Samarkand), Humayun's Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb (sometimes called the Baby Taj), and Shah Jahan's own Jama Masjid in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were primarily constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones, and buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement. and Mughal buildings including the


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Taaaaaaaaaaaaaj Mahal   الخميس فبراير 26, 2009 11:26 pm

The tomb




The focus of the Taj Mahal is the white marble tomb, which stands on a square plinth consisting of a symmetrical building with an iwan, an arch-shaped doorway, topped by a large dome. Like most Mughal tombs, basic elements are Persian in origin.
The base structure is a large, multi-chambered structure. The base is essentially a cube with chamfered edges and is roughly 55 meters on each side (see floor plan, right). On the long sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with a similar arch-shaped balcony.


On either side of the main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked
above and below. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on
chamfered corner areas as well. The design is completely symmetrical on
all sides of the building. Four minarets, one at each corner of the plinth, facing the chamfered corners, frame the tomb. The main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; their actual graves are at a lower level.



The marble dome that surmounts the tomb is its most spectacular
feature. Its height is about the same size as the base of the building,
about 35 meters, and is accentuated as it sits on a cylindrical "drum"
of about 7 metres high. Because of its shape, the dome is often called
an onion domeamrud or guava dome). The top is decorated with a lotuschattris
(kiosks) placed at its corners. The chattri domes replicate the onion
shape of the main dome. Their columned bases open through the roof of
the tomb and provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires (guldastas) extend from edges of base walls, and provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome. The lotus motif is repeated on both the chattris and guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial, which mixes traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements.
(also called an design, which serves to accentuate its height as well. The shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed



The main dome is crowned by a gilded spire or finial. The finial, made of gold until the early 1800s, is now made of bronze.
The finial provides a clear example of integration of traditional
Persian and Hindu decorative elements. The finial is topped by a moon, a typical Islamic motif, whose horns point heavenward.
Because of its placement on the main spire, the horns of moon and
finial point combine to create a trident shape, reminiscent of
traditional Hindu symbols of Shiva.[10]



At the corners of the plinth stand minarets, the four large towers
each more than 40 meters tall. The minarets display the Taj Mahal's
penchant for symmetry. These towers are designed as working minarets, a
traditional element of mosques as a place for a muezzin
to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is effectively
divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the
tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a
chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb. The minaret
chattris share the same finishing touches, a lotus design topped by a
gilded finial. Each of the minarets were constructed slightly outside
of the plinth, so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence
with many such tall constructions of the period, the material from the
towers would tend to fall away from the tomb.



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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Taaaaaaaaaaaaaj Mahal   الخميس فبراير 26, 2009 11:29 pm

Since it opened in 1903, The Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Mumbai has
created its own unique history. From Maharajas and Princes to various
Kings, Presidents, CEOs and entertainers, the Taj has played the
perfect host, supportive of their every need.



Built in 1903, the hotel is an architectural marvel and brings together
Moorish, Oriental and Florentine styles. Offering panoramic views of
the Arabian Sea and the Gateway of India, the hotel is a gracious
landmark of the city of Mumbai, showcasing contemporary Indian
influences along with beautiful vaulted alabaster ceilings, onyx
columns, graceful archways, hand-woven silk carpets, crystal
chandeliers, a magnificent art collection, an eclectic collection of
furniture, and a dramatic cantilever stairway.



Over the past century, The Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Mumbai has
amassed a diverse collection of paintings and works of art and is a
veritable showcase of artifacts and art of the era. From Belgian
chandeliers to Goan Christian artifacts, the hotel incorporates a
myriad of artistic styles and tastes.

Like a Star @ heaven lol!

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
Taaaaaaaaaaaaaj Mahal
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

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